Great for lunch, a barbecue or picnic, these wings have a hint of chilli but are warmly smoky rather than a flaming firecracker. Chicken wings consisting of just the wing joint without the tip are best for this dish. You’ll need to marinate this dish for at least 2 hours before cooking. By Koko Chanel & Teddy
If bought fresh, the chicken wings can be left to marinate, covered and chilled in the fridge, up to a day ahead.
Once marinated, the chicken wings can be covered and frozen. Simply defrost in the fridge before roasting.
Marinating the chicken wings gives depth of flavour and prevents them from drying out. You could use a resealable freezer bag instead of a bowl, if you prefer.
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Fish, Celeriac Chips & Tartare Sauce by Hemsley & Hemsley
Good old fish and chips. A traditionally deep-fried dish that dates back to around 1860 when the first fish and chip shop opened in London.
Here's our version - instead of the refined vegetable oil or sunflower oil used for frying and the glutinous batter, we crumb our fish with ground almonds and shallow fry it in ghee or coconut oil - two fats that are great for your health and remain unaltered when cooked at high temperatures.
You can always make a light and crispy gluten-free batter for your fish but then you'll need to properly deep fry it. Cod is the traditional choice for fish and chips, but the problem nowadays is that cod and even haddock are two of the most endangered species in British waters and fishing grounds. Sustainable fish, in season now and much cheaper, include pollock, pouting, hake and whiting.
Our oven-baked chips are made from the ugly duckling of the vegetable world - celeriac. Despite its knobbled and gnarled looks, celeriac has a lovely flavour, can be eaten raw, and in this instance makes a great chip. Unlike potatoes, and other root vegetables, it is very low in starch (which affects blood sugar levels) and higher in fibre, as well as being a good source of potassium.
It makes a great accompaniment to the fish as the protein from fish and the high starch from regular potatoes can be very difficult to digest together. Home-made tartare sauce is well worth it - and actually good for you. Originally from France this creamy sauce was created to accompany steak tartare. Raw, free-range, organic egg yolks and cold, pressed avocado or sunflower oil provides the mayonnaise base - lemon juice and any variety of pickles and herbs provide the tang.
We serve it with the deliciously salty and nutritious samphire - a succulent marsh plant native to the UK and currently in season - or go for classic peas, mushy if you like. Alternatively, try a pea and watercress salad.
Fish and celeriac Ingredients
(use organic ingredients where possible) Serves 2 people
2 x 150g fillets of firm white fish
1 egg, beaten
¾ cup of ground almonds (almond flour)
Sea salt and black pepper
1 medium celeriac
2 teaspoons of ghee (or even tastier beef fat!)
2.5 tablespoons of coconut flour helps the egg to stick for a better coating
2 large organic egg yolks
½ -1 cup of cold pressed/unrefined avocado or sunflower oil (olive oil is too strong)
The juice of half a lemon 2 teaspoons of capers
Roughly chopped 2 tablespoons of cornichons or gherkins,
1 teaspoon of Dijon mustard
Sea salt and pepper, to taste
large pinch of roughly chopped tarragon or dill, or a clove of garlic, crushed
Instructions Celeriac chips -
Preheat the oven to 190C. - Wash and peel the celeriac (you might need to use a knife as the skin is thick). - Slice off the top and bottom and cut the celeriac into thumb-thick slices and then into fat chip shapes. - Spread the chips out onto a large baking tray and season with sea salt. - Dot the 2 tablespoons of ghee around the baking tray and pop the tray into the oven. - After 15 minutes, remove the tray and use two spatulas to toss the chips and coat them in the melted ghee. - Return the tray to the oven and cook for another 25 minutes, or until golden brown.
Tartare Sauce -
Start by making a mayonnaise - use a blender or hand whisk to beat the eggs. - Blend or whisk in the oil, a teaspoon at a time, making sure that the oil is thoroughly incorporated before adding the next teaspoon. - Once you start to see the yolk thickening, you can add the oil at a slightly faster rate. - Pour the mayonnaise into a bowl and stir in the other ingredients. - Leave to chill.
Set out a bowl of beaten egg, a plate of coconut flour and another plate of ground almonds. - Rinse each fillet and pat dry with kitchen towel before seasoning with sea salt - it is important that the fish is dry for the coating to stick. - Dip the fillet in coconut flour, shaking off the excess, then into the beaten egg. - Press the fillet firmly onto the plate of ground almonds. Turn to coat the other side in the same way, patting the ground almonds on so that they form an even layer. - Heat up a frying pan with your ghee or coconut oil until some ground almond sizzles when dropped in. - Fry the fish for 3 minutes (you might need to cook them in 2 batches) until crisp on the underside. - Carefully turn the fish to fry the other side for 2-3 minutes or until golden brown and cooked through. - Serve with the celeriac chips, tartare sauce and some samphire sauteed in butter (don't add salt!) or a bowl of peas.
Most all have fun making it www.hemsleyandhemsley.com
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The science behind it goes back to our caveman roots
By Ella Alexander
In the least surprising news of the day, it's been confirmed that yo-yo dieting leads to inevitable weight gain.
A study, published in the journal Evolution, Medicine and Public Health, found that repeated diets trigger a caveman response to famine that causes the brain to send out signals of food scarcity – telling the body to store more fat in case there are future food shortages.
According to the Telegraph Reporters, the research was based on observations of nature. Scientists devised a mathematical model in a simulated animal that doesn't know when to expect its next meal. They found that when food is low on the ground, animals seize any opportunity to put on weight.
"Surprisingly, our model predicts that the average weight gain for dieters will actually be greater than those who never diet," said the lead researcher Dr Andrew Higginson, from the University of Exeter.
"This happens because non-dieters learn that the food supply is reliable so there is less need for the insurance of fat stores."
He added that the best way to lose weight was via the traditional route – exercise regularly and eat in moderation.
"The best thing for weight loss is to take it steady," said Dr Higginson. "Our work suggests that eating only slightly less than you should, all the time, and doing physical exercise is much more likely to help you reach a healthy weight than going on low-calorie diets."
So put that juice down and enjoy the indulgences of Christmas and then the next holiday...
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This creamy avocado banana smoothie is "the perfect natural pick-me-up," says Rich Goldstein, owner of the Natural Epicurean Academy of Culinary Arts. By Leta Shy
It's also a delicious way to protect your heart: the monosaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in avocados and potassium in bananas all offer cardiovascular support, while cinnamon can help lower LDL cholesterol levels. Even better if you're watching your waistline: MUFAs have been shown to target belly fat, so sipping on this frosty low-calorie smoothie when the temperatures rise is a good idea.
Enjoy this creamy, dairy-free smoothie in the morning for breakfast or as part of a cooling lunch.
Tweaking texture could give us healthy versions of our favorite junk foods—and that's just the beginning By Kendra Pierre-Louis
The list of foods that I refuse to eat is extensive: tofu, okra, stirred yogurt (yes, it's the stirring that gets me), and mashed potatoes, to name a few. Condiments are prominently featured: mayonnaise, butter, cream sauces, and ranch dressings are big no-nos.
Friends call me picky, but that word feels inadequate—it evokes a realm of virulent food neophobes who subsist on a steady diet of pale, bland consumables and balk at the notion of trying anything new.
I, however, embrace culinary novelties: glass potato chips, grilled whale, musk ox in yellow curry sauce. I’ve eaten harkl, the Icelandic delicacy where a poisonous Greenlandic shark is left to rot, then fermented for an extra kick. The chef Anthony Bourdain described harkl, whose redolent bouquet is not dissimilar from the acrid sensation of huffing a bottle of nail polish remover, as “the single worst, most disgusting and terrible tasting thing.” Trash-talking chef Gordon Ramsey allegedly threw up after eating it. But I’d rather subsist on a steady diet of harkl than eat anything covered in hollandaise sauce.
Compared to our rich vocabulary for foods’ flavor, America’s culinary glossary for food tactility is thin. A lemon, for example, might be described as acidic, tangy, citrusy, or sour—but how does that lemon feel?citrus
As eaters, we tend to downplay texture’s importance. A 2002 study in the Journal of Sensory Studies found that texture lagged behind taste and smell—and only occasionally beat out temperature—in terms of the perceived impact on flavor. But you only have to look at pasta to see how strongly texture impacts our perception of taste. We’ll eat macaroni and cheese in the form of spirals, shells, and noodles shaped like Spongebob Squarepants, but spaghetti mixed with florescent "cheese" powder seems anathema—it’s the texture that makes the difference.
For the longest time, food scientists downplayed texture’s importance as well. “When I was a student pursuing a degree in food science, I was taught that flavor was a combination of mainly taste and smell," recalls Jeannine Delwiche, one of the authors of the 2002 study.
But how a food feels affects our enjoyment of the thing. There is, of course, the actual texture of the food, which scientists call rheology. Rheology focuses on consistency and flow. For example, it’s fairly evident that cotton candy has a different texture than plain sugar, even though sugar is its only ingredient. But the perception of a food’s rheology—what scientists call psychorheology—is another thing entirely. If you’ve ever wondered why sour candy always seems to come coated in rough sugar, the reason is simple: We perceive rougher foods as being more sour. Psychorheology is why we like gummy bears in solid but not liquid form, why we enjoy carbonated soda but balk at its flavor when it goes flat. It’s why we perceive gelato as creamier than ice cream—even though the latter has more fat.
Texture is an important indicator of a food's fat content. If we can figure out how to trick our tongues into sensing more fat than is actually present in a food, we can increase satiation while decreasing a food’s calorie count. That's why some researchers are finally turning their attention to these taste-making sensations.
Chewing The FatSince the emergence of the “obesity epidemic,” the food industry has found itself under pressure to deliver healthier foods. Early on, they dealt with the pressure simply by removing whatever ingredient was currently in contention. An obsession with low-calorie foods lead to the rise of artificial sweeteners, while the low-fat fad of the '80s stripped foods of their richness but packed them with as much as 20 percent more sugar. The resurgence of low-carb diets in the '90s made sugar passé, so fat and artificial sweeteners were back on the menu. But these days, we want it all: People look for foods with moderate amounts of fat, little to no added sugar, and whole, "natural" ingredients—but with the same flavor as the fatty, sugary, artificially-flavored stuff they grew up with.
Companies are responding to this consumer chatter by offering products like reduced-salt potato chips. But once they’re on the shelves, “Nobody buys it,” said Simon Harrison, a researcher at Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIR). “Because when you’re going to buy chips, you’re going to go for the yummy ones, not the ones that are salt reduced.”
A low-salt, low-fat potato chip with all the flavor of the ones we go for now would obviously be a huge coup. But the key to creating such a chip might not have anything to do with flavor.
“Texture is a hugely important to what we do,” said Kristopher Bronner. Bronner is a co-founder of the candy company UnReal, along with his brother and his dad.
“My parents are huge health nuts,” said Bronner. One Halloween, his younger brother Nicky—upset at having his Halloween candy taken away—exclaimed, “Why does something I love have to be so bad for me?” And thus UnReal was born. The Bronners take some of our beloved favorites—M&M’s, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups—and reimagine them with at least 30 percent less sugar and 60 percent more protein, all without leaning on artificial sweeteners. That means paying attention to every detail, including texture. Take their rumination on the peanut butter cup, for instance: should it be one solid piece of chocolate with peanut butter filling pumped in, or should it be made in three layers? This apparently has a huge impact on how customers perceive the finished product.
Harrison is trying to systematize what the Bronners are learning by trial-and-error. The computational fluid dynamics researcher and his team use computers to see how liquids behave (how the water in a tsunami acts when it hits a city, for example). He was initially brought on to model how the Australian Olympic diving team moves through the air and hits the water in order to help reduce injury and improve performance.
CSIR is public-private partnership, and both the Australian government and the Australian food industry were facing complementary problems: how can the government improve eating habits to enhance public health, and how can companies can make healthy foods the public wants to eat? To solve that problem, they turned to Harrison, who put his biomechanics background to another use—modeling what happens to food when it enters our mouths.
Harrison uses modified versions of the same models his team uses to predict tsunamis to make computer models of the mouth. The models represent all of the aspects of anatomy—the shape of the teeth, the gums, the palate, the cheek, and the throat—and how it all moves when eating a given substance.
“We take our best available representation of the food structure, previous knowledge of how the structure relates to the mechanics of the food, how sticky is it, how strong is it, if you crush it, how many pieces does it break into it,” said Harrison.
The Tsunami Inside Our Mouths
A lot happens inside of our mouths between the first bite and the final swallow. The tongue may gently nudge the morsel towards the central incisors—whether to the left or on the right is a matter of unconscious preference—to break food down to even smaller pieces. The pieces may linger there, or get shunted to the back molars, or the tongue may shift them wholly to the other side. Alternatively, pieces may rest chipmunk-style in the cheek sacs along both sides of the mouth while the molars get to work. Or, depending on the person and the food, the piece may linger on the tongue, where salivary acids let it soften a bit before chewing even begins.
Food sensory researchers from The Understanding & Insight Group, a consortium of scientists from the U.S. and New Zealand, break these chewing preferences into four categories. Chewers prefer foods that can be chewed for a long time, like gummy candy. Crunchers prefer foods that respond with a resounding crunch, like potato chips. Suckers prefer foods, like hard candy, that dissolve slowly over time. And smooshers, the laziest of all eaters, prefer soft creamy foods that spread across the mouth with minimal effort—like puddings.
Modeling this turbulent behavior isn’t easy—traditional imaging devices don’t work so well when the subject is moving—but it’s important. “Where we put food in our mouth will affect our perception of its texture,” says Harrison. The way our mouths interact with foods affects how enjoyable we find different formulations of ingredients. Adults, for example, enjoy a complex textural experience, which is why many chocolate bars come with nuts—the texture just adds a certain something.
Flavor Of The Week
Why does crunch change our flavor perception? Although we tend to use the words "taste" and "flavor" interchangeably, taste is related to our chemical senses—the sweet, sour and bitter notes that we register from chemical sensors on the tongue.
“Flavor,” said Michael Barnett-Cowan, an assistant professor of neuroscience at the University of Waterloo, “is the entire experience of the taste, the smell, and the textural properties. When you play with texture, you're playing with flavor.”
Barnett-Cowan’s work focuses on how the brain takes discrete sensory inputs like taste, touch, and smell and cobbles them together into a single, holistic impression. Flavor is why a dash of vanilla extract seems so delicious in a moist cupcake or in creamy scoop of vanilla ice cream. Taste is why, as many have learned in a fit of childish curiosity, drinking vanilla extract is an exercise in repugnance—the extract is little more than vanilla bean soaked in cheap vodka.
“One interesting experiment that you can do in terms of flavor,” said Harrison, “if you have chewing gum like spearmint or something like that, chew it for ten minutes, and notice how the flavor disappears.”
Even though the menthol—the taste—is still present, the dwindling sugar content robs the gum of its flavor.
“If you put sugar onto the chewing gum you'll start to taste the menthol again,” Harrison said.
But while we tend to think of flavor exclusively in terms of taste, texture matters too. Gummy bears, for instance, are basically just a combination of sugar and thickening agents.
“If you were to liquefy it, it becomes so sour and so sweet that people couldn’t bear it,” said Harold Bult a Senior Sensory Scientist with the Netherlands-based company NIZO. Bult has found that the thicker a food is, the less we taste it.
But while texture may be relatively new to food scientists, most agree that chefs have been tackling the issue—albeit from a different perspective—since time immemorial.
“The building blocks of the eating experience are flavor and texture,” said Tesi Wei Lim, who runs the Somerville, Massachusetts based restaurant Journeyman with his wife Dinana Kudayarova. Journeyman is noted for playing with food texture.
“If everything on the plate is mushy,” said Kudayarova, “it begins to feel like baby food. And if everything on the plate is crispy, crispy, crispy, it begins to feel dry.”
And the reason why every sandwich seems to be covered with mayonnaise? Moist foods carry taste better, according to Wei Lim. Mayonnaise is a (supposedly) neutral form of moisture.
A Crunch Heard 'Round The World
Attention to texture may also vary from culture to culture.
“My family speaks a dialect of Chinese for which there are a huge number of words for texture,” noted Wei Lim. “There’s a word for the texture of thoroughly cooked squid, and a word for a squid when it’s lightly stir-fried and still bouncy.” QQ in some Chinese dialects describes the texture of food that when you first bite into pushes back for a moment before relaxing. It's a word that describes the texture when you bite into the balls at the bottom of a boba or bubble tea, or of Udon noodles. It's hard to think of an American food that has it.
And even though Americans tend to rank taste as more important than texture, there is one exception: desserts.
"When we talk about desserts, we talk about their feel in the mouth, not their appearance, smell, taste, or sound,” writes Dan Jurafsky in his book "The Language of Food."
Susan Strauss, a linguist at Penn State University, found that when Americans talk about dessert we lean toward words like moist, dense, creamy, sticky, gooey, oozing, and dripping—textural words.
“That makes sense," said Kudayarova. "You know how a dessert tastes. It tastes sweet. Texture is especially important with dessert, because the flavor range is narrower than the flavor range of savory foods.”
But the rest of our food remains pretty flat.
“If you look at western cooking, there’s very little textural manipulation,” said Wei Lim, noting that potatoes—which we fry, roast, hash, mash, and boil—represent the most elaborate textural variations in Western food. “Basically, a vegetable is a vegetable. You can overcook it or undercook it, but they’re not trying to do a lot with the texture of peas.”
In contrast, Chinese dishes such as sea cucumber, various types of fungi, and even the controversial shark fin soup all have mild to minimal flavors that are determined by what they’re cooked in. Traditionally, they’re braised for a long time in richly-flavored stocks, rendering them textural vehicles for the flavor of the broth
Not that the stock itself isn't a delicious textural enigma.
In the 1950s, Dr. Emily Wick—who would eventually go on to become the first fully tenured professor at MIT—was trying to figure out how to get the beef broth in Campbell’s soup to match the taste and mouthfeel of the homemade variety. In research notes at the time, Wick wrote, “You know beef broth feels more viscous in your mouth than just a glass of water. But if you measure the viscosity it’s no more viscous than a glass of water.”
Wick never did solve that riddle. Identifying the requisite compounds was impossible with the technology of the time. Here’s to hoping that food scientists of the current era have better luck.
This simple recipe for homemade lemonade is perfect for picnics and barbecues.
By Richard Corrigan
less than 30 mins
no cooking required
Makes 1 litre
"Food media is predominantly generated by white people for white people, so when the subject veers toward anything outside of the Western canon, it's not uncommon to see things generalised, exotified, or misrepresented. " By Megha Mohan
Filipino-American Celeste Noche, who is a food and travel photographer, shared her thoughts on the "exotified" depiction of certain recipes within the blogging and gourmet community on the podcast The Racist Sandwich.
"I think microaggressions in social media are reflective of food media as a whole in that appropriation," Noche tells BBC Trending, "These microaggressions can be as simple as a lack of research."
Whether it's taking photos of dishes with chopsticks sticking straight up into rice or noodles (which can be seen as offensive in some Asian cultures)", she says, "or dramatisation in the props used to style ethnic foods (why are Asian dishes so often styled on bamboo mats or banana leaves with chopsticks?)".
Noche added that established food blogs like that of Andrew Zimmern also fed into stereotypes.
"(His) recipe for Filipino short ribs is styled with chopsticks even though Filipinos traditionally eat with spoons and forks or their hands".
Zimmern has not responded to a request for comment at the time of writing.
Similarly the food site Bon Appetit received some criticism for publishing a video last year about noodles claiming "Pho is the new Ramen." Several commenters attacked the video for the "simplification of Asian culture" as "pho is from Vietnam and ramen from Japan".
The video was fronted by a white American chef who spoke on the 'correct way to eat pho".
After a little more than 24 hours on the website Bon Appetit removed the video altogether, both from their Facebook and YouTube channels, and apologised for any offence they may have caused.
Noche's assertion comes at a time of much discussion about the so-called "cultural misrepresentations" of food.
Pembroke College of Cambridge university said they were taking complaints from ethnic minority students about their menu "seriously".
"Dear Pembroke catering staff, stop mixing mango and beef and calling it 'Jamaican stew'," a student posted on the college's Facebook page. "I'm actually half Jamaican, pls show me where in the Caribbean they mix fruit and meat."
Another complained about a "Tunisian rice" recipe which, well, doesn't exist in Tunisia.
The college said they would be "going through the dishes on the menu to see if any are ones that are not very well named".
However, not everyone agreed.
Evening Standard journalist Sam Leith wrote "And if, in an age when basic civilisational freedoms are under threat, the next generation of highly educated students is devoting its attention to complaining about whether their lunch is authentic enough, God help us all."
Some Facebook commenters agreed with him, saying that the famous college had "been blind sided by politically correct Nazis".
Noche however, feels that the issue speaks to a wider discussion on the portrayal of minorities.
"We need to break away from the idea that white and western is the base standard for media portrayals - whether in food, film, literature, etc - and start trusting and hiring people of colour to represent themselves."
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